The Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna from Chengjiang, Yunnan, is a very unusual fossil lagerstaette. It contains extraordinarily well-preserved fossils in great abundance, vividly reflecting the true composition and appearance of marine communities 520 million years ago. The discovery of the Chengjiang fauna extends the fossil records of most living animal phyla back to the beginning of the Cambrian, providing evidence for deciphering the mystery of the “Cambrian explosion” of animals. The Chengjiang fauna has been appraised as one of the most exciting discoveries of the 20th century. The Chengjiang Field Station of Palaeontology was established in 1998 to support field research, international academic exchange, and scientific promotion and education.